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Mt. Banahaw-San Cristobal Protected Landscape, Laguna/Quezon

Mt. Banahaw-San Cristobal Protected Landscape, Laguna/Quezon

Address: Quezon

Description: The “meeting point” of the northern and southern Luzon sub-faunal regions, the MBSCPL consists of four adjoining mountains, which is home to the remaining forest of Southern Luzon. The establishment and empowerment of an environmental constituency among the surrounding communities has helped build a social fence against threats to the area’s BCSD.

Status: Closed

Site Profile Summary

Ecosystem Types

Lowland to Sub-montane Forests

Protection Status

Protected Landscape (Republic Act 9847, approved Dec 11, 2009)


10,900.59 ha

Geographical Profile

  • Mt. Banahaw, one of the largest active volcanos in the Philippines with an elliptical crater, is also known as the Vulcan de Agua (the water volcano) because of the numerous springs that flow from its base. Its last recorded eruption in 1721 resulted in the formation of a lake in its crater.

  • Its composition, which includes two adjoining mountains, host one of the largest tracts of forest in Southern Luzon.

  • A major watershed for creeks, rivers, and falls draining into Laguna de Bay and Tayabas Bay.

  • Caves found in the western portion of Mt. Banahaw-San Cristobal are popular base camps for religious and eco-tourist groups.

  • Species endemism is rated highly in Mt. Banahaw, with scientific records noting a range of 66% to 76%.


  • Plant diversity is high with 268 species, dominated by trees with moderately high diversity and even distribution. A total of 175 tree species have been found.

  • 55 endemic plant species have been found, including 16 threatened species among vascular plants. There is also an abundance of pioneer species from the Moraceae and Meliaccaeae families.

  • A new Rafflesia species endemic only to Mt. Banahaw, Rafflesia philippensis, was rediscovered in 2006.


  • Endemic fauna include threatened species such as the Flame-breasted fruit dove (Ptilinopus marchei), Luzon tarictic hornbill (Penelopides manillae), and Southern Luzon Cloud Rat (Phloeomys cumingi).

  • 72 of 84 bird species are endemic; 7 are threatened, including the Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi) and Philippine cockatoo (Cacatua haematuropygia).

  • 163 species of terrestrial fauna have been found here, including 19 newly documented species.

  • 13 out of 22 mammal species are endemic, with 6 vulnerable.

  • 18 of 29 amphibian species are endemic, with 11 threatened, 7 vulnerable, and 4 near-threatened.

  • 12 of 18 reptile species are endemic, with two threatened species, the Sailfin Water Lizard (Hydrosaurus pustulatus) and the Highland Sphenomorphus (Sphenomorphus luzonense).

Livelihood Resources

Agriculture, Agroforestry

Other Matters of Significance

Mount Banahaw is often associated with mysticism, superstition, and religion and is a well-known and frequented destination among pilgrims and other people seeking miracles or blessings.


FPE-funded Projects and Initiatives


Grant Type, Strategy


Implementing Partner

Stakeholders and Donors Forum for Mt. Banahaw San Cristobal Protected Landscape (MBSCPL) Small, Constituency Building 2017
  • Luntiang Alyansa para sa Bundok Banahaw
Executive & Legislative Forum for Mt. Banahaw - San Cristobal Protected Landscape (MBSCPL) Small, Constituency Building 2016
  • Luntiang Alyansa para sa Bundok Banahaw

Up-Scaling Forest Restoration Efforts in Key Biodiversity Areas Project

FPE Special Project


  • Luntiang Alyansa ng Bundok Banahaw

Multi-Stakeholders Consultation and Publication of the Revised Management Plan of Mt. Banahaw-San Cristobal Protected Landscape (MBSCPL)

Medium, Constituency-building


  • Tanggol Kalikasan-Timog Katagalugan (TK-TK)

Tapat Kalikasan Environmental Law Enforcement Training

Small, Capacity-building


  • Luntiang Alyansa ng Bundok Banahaw (LABB)

Banahaw Komiks - Pahayagan Vol. II

Small, Advocacy

Dec 2007-Apr 2008

  • Binhi ng Buhay ng Magsasaka sa Bugon (BINHI)

A Shift towards Area-specific Intervention Through Strategic Planning for the FPE Priority Site in Banahaw

Medium, Proactive, Sites



Environmental Presentations of 3 Dimensional Map of Mts. Banahaw-San Cristobal Protected Landscape and Lobbying of House Bill No. 2773 (Banahaw Bill) in the 14th Congress

Small, Advocacy


  • Luntiang Alyansa ng Bundok Banahaw (LABB)

Mt. Banahaw de Dolores Closure and Bantay Banahaw Operation 2004

Small, Action Grant

Feb to Apr 2004

  • Banahaw de Dolores Outdoor Club (BDOC)

Lakbay Aral sa Mt. Province

Small, Action Grant

April 2004

  • Samahan ng Mga Kababaihan Sa Barangay Lalo (SKBL)

Environmental Exhibit of Mt. Banahaw

Small, Action Grant


  • Luntiang Alyansa Para Sa Bundok Banahaw (LABB)

PAMB Capacity Building and Strengthening and Community-based Resource Management Project for Mounts Banahaw-San Cristobal Protected Landscape (MBSCPL)

Large, Site-focused


  • Luntiang Alyansa para sa Bundok Banahaw (LABB)

  • Haribon Foundation - Tanggol Kalikasan

  • Southern Luzon Polytechnic College

Bantay Banahaw 2003

Small, Action Grant


  • Pinagbakuran Multipurpose Cooperative for The Banahaw Mountaineers, Inc.

Community-Based Resource Management for Mts. Banahaw and San Cristobal

Large, Site-focused


  • Luntiang Alyansa para sa Bundok Banahaw (LABB)

  • Tanggol Kalikasan

Pananaliksik, Dokumentasyon at Paglilimbag ng Bahanggunian para sa Bundok Banahaw

Small, Action Grant


  • Ugnayan ng mga Magsasaka sa Quezon (UGMA)

Bahanggunian para sa Bundok Banahaw

Small, Action Grant


  • Haribon Foundation-Tanggol Kalikasan

Strengthening the Environmental Defense of Bantay Banahaw

Small, Action Grant


  • Luntiang Alyansa ng Bundok Banahaw (LABB)

Bantay Banahaw '96 & Urgent Activities for the Banahaw Protected Area

Small, Action Grant


  • Luntiang Alyansa ng Bundok Banahaw (LABB)

Pagkakawing-kawing ng mga Tao't Pamayanan Tungo sa Pangangalaga ng Samo't-saring Buhay ng Banal na Bundok Banahaw

Large, Site-focused


  • Community Organizing, Training, Research, and Advocacy Institute (CO-TRAIN)

  • Luntiang Alyansa Para sa Bundok Banahaw (LABB)

Awit Banahaw – Concert of Joey Ayala and Bagong Lumad

Small, Action Grant


  • Bagong Lumad Foundation

Mt. Banahaw Ecology Awareness Campaign

Small, Action Grant


  • Luntiang Alyansa para sa Bundok Banahaw (LABB)

Key Outcomes


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